El KRAC de los CABALLEROS, fortaleza medieval en el billetario sirio

50 pounds Siria desde el Krak de los Caballeros

Krac de los Caballeros y billete de 25 libras de Siria de 1991

El KRAC de los CABALLEROS es una fortaleza medieval ubicada en el centro occidental de Siria, interdistante entre las ciudades de Homs y Tartus. Es Patrimonio de la Humanidad por la UNESCO desde 2006.

Los cruzados, en el siglo XII, construyeron la fortaleza en los terrenos ocupados por un castillo árabe, fortificando casi 30.000 m2 de terreno alrededor de unas murallas, a 650m de altura sobre una colina.

Krac de los Caballeros aerea

Sería el príncipe cristiano Tancredo en 1112 quien lo tomaría para el condado de Trípoli y ya en 1142 sería cedido a los caballeros hospitalarios de la Orden de Malta (nombre que tomarán los cruzados hospitalarios de San Juan a partir de 1530). Construido por la Orden Militar de los hospitalarios de San Juan de Jerusalem entre 1142 y 1271. Tras el terremoto de 1170 fue fortificada la muralla con un conjunto de torres cilíndricas entre altos muros en escarpadas paredes. No fue hasta 1271  cuando el sultán mameluco Baybars en un largo asedio se haría con la fortaleza, que también reforzaría.

La fortaleza consta de dos murallas separadas por un terraplén, un bastión al noroeste con cinco torres, una cisterna a cielo abierto como foso defensivo al oeste y una barbacana con tres torreones de defensa al sur.

Krac de los Caballeros interiores

Ya en el siglo XIX los inmensos espacios interiores del castillo fueron subdivididos y data de 1927 su última restauración importante.

Claro ejemplo de la arquitectura militar en el Medio Oriente en tiempos de las Cruzadas (siglos XI al XIII)

Siria 25 libras 1991 pk.102e anverso

El billete de 25 libras de Siria de 1991 nos ofrece en su anverso una vista del Krac de los Caballeros desde su muralla nororiental, junto a un grabado del sultán Saladino (Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub) quien infructuosamente asediaría la fortaleza en 1188 sin éxito.

Siria 25 libras 1991 reverso

El reverso es para el edificio de la sede central del Banco de Siria en la plaza Sabaa Bahrat de Damasco.

Desconozco qué habrá quedado de esta maravilla arquitectónica tras el paso del ISIS en la guerra civil siria, pero su visita nos exigiría perderse por sus fosos, túneles, capillas y demás baluartes de esta proeza de la ingeniería militar.

 

¡Yo estuve allí, …en 2010!

25 pensamientos en “El KRAC de los CABALLEROS, fortaleza medieval en el billetario sirio

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